Since the turn of the millennium, Japan has been marked by heated political and public debates about a massive increase in inequality and new forms of social exclusion.
Thorough understanding of the special military operation in Ukraine requires a preliminary explanation: what, in the broadest sense of the word, are we dealing with?
In fact, as experience shows (using the example of two elderly relatives whom I recently lost), vaccination does not save either from contracting the coronavirus or from serving as a carrier and transmitter of coronavirus. In this sense, there is no difference at all between vaccinated and unvaccinated. And everyone (both vaccinated and unvaccinated) is sure that there is, and that the vaccine gives reliable protection against infection. It doesn’t.
I have to admit that I haven’t interpreted speculative realism entirely correctly, starting with Quentin Meillassoux. It seemed to me as if in his defense of new materialism, his struggle of the subject against the subject, his apology of the eventuality, the proposal within the framework of the philosophy of the Copernican Revolution to displace the subject from its central position and to relocate it to the periphery, that there is something archaic in all of this, reminiscent of the materialism of the 19th century, of uncritical positivism, not least because of his criticism of Deleuze, whom he accused of his various “vitalisms”.
October 27 can be considered the date of the appearance of the theater in Russia. On this day in 1672, the first performance was staged in the Komedialnaya Khoromina, the first building in Russia, built specifically for theatrical performances near Moscow in Preobrazhensky by the decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. The actors were recruited from the Germans in the German Suburb. The play was in German.
It is probably prudent to start with a clear affirmation that the pandemic is real, that COVID-19 has taken many lives, and that public health measures have been necessary to try to limit the devastation of the disease. No denying here.
What Husserl clearly understood and brilliantly explained, scientists themselves began to understand. So, for example, in quantum mechanics, the process itself depends on the position and even on the very presence of the observer. In Einstein’s theory of relativity, the structure of time also becomes relative, which also depends on where we place the subject on the timeline. And if we assume the processes occurring at a speed greater than the speed of light, then time – beyond the limit of Minkowski space – becomes reversible. Modern superstring theory associates measurement structures with the calibration of the world sheet and the spirits of Fadeev-Popov, which also refers specifically to the subject.
By the term “Enlightenment,” we refer to a movement of intellectual change that penetrated Europe (and America) during the eighteenth century. It aimed essentially to emancipate human reason from the thraldom of prejudice and superstition (and especially from the feudal ethos and institutions) and to apply it to the cause of social and political reform. A common characteristic of the Enlightened thinkers was a belief in “progress.” According to the idea of progress, humanity has begun its history in ignorance, squalor, and fear, and, thereafter, it has risen slowly and continuously to ever-higher levels in the arts and sciences, in its command of environment, and knowledge generally. Thus, the French epistemologist Bachelard maintains that rationality is a continuous process of overcoming primary impulses, and, in particular, he argues as follows: “In point of fact I see no solid basis for a natural, direct, elemental rationality . . . Rationalist? That is what we are trying to become” (Gaston Bachelard, The New Scientific Spirit, translated by Arthur Goldhammer, Boston: Beacon Press, 1984, p. 171).
One of the branches of the Niger-Congolese family is the Mande people. Their languages differ significantly in fundamental parameters from other Niger-Congolese languages, therefore linguists consider them to be the first to separate from the main trunk, along with the Ijo and Dagon languages. The differences between the Mande and the very structure of the Niger-Congolese family are so great that there are classifications that distinguish the Mande languages into a separate families.