As early as 1977 Stanley Hoffmann claimed that International Relations (IR) is an American social science (Hoffmann 1977), and according to Ann Tickner (2013), little has changed since then.
An American political theorist Kenneth Waltz is seen as the creator of the neorealism. Waltz sophisticates the realist scheme, including in it the “structure” conception of the International Relations. Instead of the chaos and anarchy (classical realism) the International Relations becomes the field of the permanently changing balance of powers, its joint, but rectified potential keeps the whole world system in one position or, in several cases, provokes its changes.
Realism IR is defined, as it understand the Westphalian system, as an universal law, existing even in early stages in history, but was only understood and created by the majority of developed countries since the 17th century. The basis of this approach is the primacy of the principle of the national State's sovereignty and the accepted meaning of "national interests".
The liberal paradigm of IR is extremely popular and, along with realism, it is one of the two main models of interpretation, analysis and forecasting of the processes taking place in international relations. In politics, the representatives of center-left and democratic parties traditionally follow the liberal paradigm, while realists are mostly represented by conservatives, isolationists, and patriotic forces.
The diplomatic arm/corp of nations (foreign affairs ministry) is a country’s is its image builder and projector, many countries, kingdoms, states and even alliances over the centuries have come to depend on this institution to cultivate a working
The English School occupies a special position within IR theories. Usually, it is not considered as an independent paradigm, as it has common characteristics with realism and liberalism, being an original combination of elements characterizing both these approaches. In fact, it cannot be regarded as the synthesis of these two schools as its representatives have quite original positions on some issues, far from both realistic and liberal ones.