In 2020, many of us heard the words ‘resilience’, ‘vulnerability’ or ‘risk’ in a new context: a global pandemic.
The history of the last hundred years is misleading because it presents Britain and the United States as allies, but in fact, they were never allies. They were competing Empires.
This confrontation between the United States and Britain has existed right from the onset of the founding of the United States in 1776. It became increasingly pervasive in the wake of the Civil War, 1865.
When continents began to interact between themselves, from approximately five centuries ago, slowly, they started to form, what is now called the "international system". It is an attempt to break the Islamic fence - which threatened to strangle strategically the small and divided Christian kingdoms of Europe -, Portugal and Castile launched their navigations through the Atlantic to Asia, bordering the Muslim power
There are two powers, or poles, that are engaged in an absolute, mortal and existential struggle, in the present, past and future. The one pole is Eurasia, 'continent', or 'land power', and is represented by Heartland in Mackinder's vision; historically it was represented by Sparta and Rome and it is teleocratic (a top-down hierarchy exists instead of a 'network'). On the other hand, there is 'seapower', or 'sea civilization', that was historically represented by Carthage or Athens. The Continental Power is heroic, conservative, and spiritual. Sea Power is democratic, materialistic and market-oriented. There is also this dualism in Zombart's vision of the hero and the merchant. There is a civilization of heroes, maybe a bad civilization, butoneofheroes.
As already stated, the assumptions on which international relationships rest is given by the fact that the political units are striving to impose one to another's will. International politics must involve a contest of wills: the will to impose or the will of not being allowed to impose the will of another.
The most important aspect of the Theory of the Multipolar World (TMW) is the concept of counter-hegemony as first formulated in the context of the Critical Theory of International Relations (IR).