Rimland. Now predominantly Continentalist geopolitical orientation.
A flexible approach to the “Eurasianist – Atlanticist”.
Members of the NATO and of the European Union (especially France, Andorra, and Portugal); Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean and Latin America, the Middle East;Thailand and Indonesia (main allies in the ASEAN region).
United Kingdom, Morocco.
Russia; Australia and Oceania; Canada; East, South and Central Asia.
Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean Europe, North Africa, Latin America.
Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types.
Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%.
Languages: Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Valld'Aran) along with Catalan; <5,000 speakers).
Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a hereditary monarch. The head of the executive is the Prime Minister.Spain has a multi-party system at both the national and regional level. Regional parties are strong in autonomous communities Catalonia and the Basque Country.
Nationally dominant political parties are:
People's Party (PP) — mainstream centre-right party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) — mainstream centre-left social democratic party linked to General Union of Workers trade union
United We Can (Unidos Podemos, UP) — a republican left-wing electoral alliance
Citizens (Ciudadanos) — a centrist, business-friendly party.
The Spanish economy is the fifth largest in the European Union, and the fourth largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. Traditionally Spain is an agricultural country, is also one of the largest manufacturers of Western Europe.
Spain has strong innovations, such as renewable energy, biotechnology, transportation and technology industries, small and medium-sized enterprises. The problems of the Spanish economy are low labor participation and inflation.
The most important sectors of Spain’s economy in 2015 were wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation, and food services (24.5%), public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (18.7%), and industry (17.0%).
When General Francisco Franco died in 1975, Spain had embarked on the restoration of democracy. Franco statues and memorials have been removed from public places. On the 30th of May 1982, Spain joined NATO. Spain wanted a guarantee of its territorial integrity fromNATO by protecting it from possible foreign expansionism, principally from Morocco, which had ambitions to conquer two Spanish cities in North Africa: Ceuta and Melilla. The Spanish Government feared potential offensive posturing by two other North African countries, Algeria and Libya.
Spain joined the European Economic Communityin 1986. On January 1st 2002, Spain fully adopted the Euro.
Spain’s mountainous terrain has led to the emergence of regionalist and separatist movements, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country. Spain’s geopolitical challenge is to bring about a truly united nation with a balance of power between the central government in Madrid and the autonomous regions.
The United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and etc.