There are two powers, or poles, that are engaged in an absolute, mortal and existential struggle, in the present, past and future. The one pole is Eurasia, 'continent', or 'land power', and is represented by Heartland in Mackinder's vision; historically it was represented by Sparta and Rome and it is teleocratic (a top-down hierarchy exists instead of a 'network'). On the other hand, there is 'seapower', or 'sea civilization', that was historically represented by Carthage or Athens. The Continental Power is heroic, conservative, and spiritual. Sea Power is democratic, materialistic and market-oriented. There is also this dualism in Zombart's vision of the hero and the merchant. There is a civilization of heroes, maybe a bad civilization, butoneofheroes.