Land of Outer (Insular) Crescent. Mixed geopolitical orientation.
60% - Sovereignists, 40% - Atlanticist.
Brazil, Chile, Peru, China, Russia, Algeria, France, Italy
Turkey, Australia, United States, Iran, Germany
Latin America, South Atlantic
Territorial dispute over Malvinas (Folkland), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (occupied by UK).
Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica.
Argentina is composed by 79% from different European, mainly Italian and Spanish ethnicity, 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.
Spanish is official language of the country, but there are six main dialects.
Also many groups uses second language:
- Italian (by 1.5 million people);
- Arabic (by one million people);
- German (by 400.000 people);
- Yiddish (by 200.000 people);
- Guaraní (by 200.000 people);
- Catalan (by 174.000 people);
- Quechua (by 65.000 people);
- Wichi (by 53.700 people);
- Vlax Romani (by 52.000 people);
- Japanese (by 32.000 people);
- Aymara (by 30.000 people);
- Russian and its Ukrainian dialect (by 27.000 people);
- Welsh (25.000 people).
Argentina is home to a significant population of Arab and partial Arab background, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin. The Asian population in the country numbers at around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community.
There is largest Jewish diaspora in Latin America and 7th in the world.
According to a CONICET poll, Argentines are 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, 0.9% Mormons; 1.2% follow other religions, including Orthodox Christians, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism.
There is freedom of religion by Constitution.
Two main political powers inside of the country are neoliberals and conservatives. Both influenced by Peronism (ideology of national sovereignty titled by name of it's founder Juan Domingo Peron).
Neoliberal group oriented for close ties with USA and transnational organizations while conservatives looking for unique path of political and economical development.
Аrgentina has the second largest economy in South America (After Brazil), the third-largest in Latin America.
Argentina is founding member of the Mercosur regional trade block (other members: Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela). Also Aregintina is co-founder of OEI, CELAC and UNASUR.
Also Argentina descibed as emerging economic power inside VISTA club (officially not exist, acronim was used because of similar economic characteristics of the countries).
In 90s country was deep effected by reforms of IMF. During 2000s there was rise of economy, but during second term of Cristina Kirshner it was fall down because of active pressure of transnational neoliberal camp and ineffective politics.
High inflation is problem of Argentinian economy from 90s.
Country has export-oriented agricultural sector becuase of rich natural resources.
Leading sectors of economy by volume are: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.
In Argentina located Atucha Nuclear Power Plant that was first one in Latin America.
Argentina bases its foreign policies on the guiding principles of non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation, disarmament and peaceful settlement of conflicts.
Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration.
Foreign policy is officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President.
In 2012 Argentina was elected to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and participated in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East.
The National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense, and comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
Culture of Argentina is hybrid of European (mostly Spanish and Italian, but also British, French and German) with strong influence of indigenous (Amerindian) elements. African pieces also incorporated. Unique Argentinian culture is Gaucho that represented by their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance.
It is the country with the highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of "very high".
Argentina became in 2010 the first country in Latin America and the second in the Americas to allow same-sex marriage nationwide.
Argentina is a member of the G-15 and G-20. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (OIA).
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