conflicts

Name of conflict Description
Криза у Сирији
Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War began when Iraq invaded Iran via air and land on 22 September 1980. It followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority, as well as Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's revolutionary chaos and attacked without formal warning, it made only limited progress into Iran and was quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive.[42] A number of proxy forces participated in the war, most notably the Iranian Mujahedin-e-Khalq siding with Ba'athist Iraq and Iraqi Kurdish militias of Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan siding with Iran—all suffering a major blow by the end of the conflict.

Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with Resolution 598, a U.N.-brokered ceasefire which was accepted by both sides. At the war's conclusion, it took several weeks for Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honour pre-war international borders set by the 1975 Algiers Agreement.[43]The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.[42][44]

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern republics of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

The Kashmir issue has been the main cause, whether direct or indirect, of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Arab–Israeli conflict

The Arab–Israeli conflict (Arabicالصراع العربي الإسرائيلي‎ Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'IsrailiHebrewהסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי‎ Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict are bound in the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians,[12] and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands. The sectarian conflictbetween Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab–Israeli War in May 1948 following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large scale regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, as large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements that followed the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Attempts have been made to resolve the conflict, but without success. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, and Israel and Jordan in 1994. The interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, though a final peace agreement has yet to be reached. An Israeli–Palestinian peace process is ongoing. A cease-fire currently stands between Israel and Syria, as well as more recently with Lebanon (since 2006). The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza, which resulted in the 2009 cease-fire (although fighting has continued since then) is usually also included as part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and hence the Arab–Israeli conflict. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab world and Israel generally remain at odds with each other over many issues.